Chronic infection with Hepatitis B virus may lead
to serious complications and 25% to 40% of long term
patients may die of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.
Luckily, only a small percentage of people who suffer
from acute hepatitis -B may go into a chronic state.
Even without treatment, most of the acute viral hepatitis
B clears up on its own.
and HCV are three major blood borne viruses. Although
they are distinctly different, their mode of transmission
is blood. HBV is also transmitted through mucous membrane
contact. HBV, frequently is sexually transmitted. HBV
is a non cytopathic virus and infects liver cells. Initially
there is no immune reaction to the virus. This phase
is sometimes called "immune tolerant phase"
Later in life usually in the thirties and forties the
immune system is triggered to attack the hepatocytes
(livercells) occupied by the HBV viruses. After many
years of silence, there is a flare up of disease . There
is an increase in aminotranferase levels and if you
take a biopsy, the hepatocytes show evidence of heapatitis
. HBV and HIV are co morbidities. The presence of HBV
has no adverse effect on HIV but in a patient of HBV,
the presence of HIV will hasten development of cirrhosis
and liver failure.